Date Converter





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Time is the number of the movement from before to later (τοῦτο γάρ ἐστιν τὸν χρόνον, ἀριθμός κινήσεως κατὰ τὸ πρότερον καὶ τὸ ὕστερον) (Aristotle Physics, 219b1)

Methods of Chronology Calendars & Religions

You can find here the first total reconstruction of the ancient Attic (Athenian) Calendar introduced in Athens by the astromoner Meton in 432 BC, one year before the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta. The year begins with the new moon after the summer solstice with the month Hakatombaion and next months: Metageitnion, Boedromion, Pyanepsion, Maimakterion, Poseideon, Poseideon II (intercalated month in the case of the long years), Gamelion, Anthesterion, Elaphebolion, Mounichion, Thargelion and Skirophorion. More information
A series of texts concerning the central idea of measuring time for each calendar, as well as the relation of the calendars to religious festivals worshipping God (gods) of certain people and traditions will be posted soon!

Today in Calendars

The current date in Gregorian, Julian, ancient Attic, ancient Roman, Byzantine, Hebrew, Hijri, Coptic, Ethiopian, Persian, Afghan-Pastu, Kurdish, Indian Civil, Hindu Traditional,Traditional Chinese, Japanese, Armenian, Baha'i, Mayan Calendars. Complete Armenian Calendar with feast days for any year. Besides, some other elements of ancient time measurement are given such as the indiction, the Julian Day Number, date-time of equinoxes and solstices

Date Converter

You van convert any date to ancient Attic (Athenian) from proleptic Julian 16/7/812 BC until Gregorian 31/12/25000 AD/ to Hebrew from proleptic Julian 7/10/3761 BC until Gregorian 31/12/25000 AD/ to Hijri from O.S. (Julian) 16/7/622 AD [622 AD = 1 AH - year 1 of Hegira] / to Coptic from O.S. (Julian) 29/8/284 AD [284 AD = year 1 of Era of Martyrs]/ to Ethiopian from O.S. (Julian) 29/8/8 AD [8 AD = year 1 of Mercy (Amätä Məhrät) / to Persian - Afghan Pastu - Kurdish from O.S. (Julian) 19/3/622 AD - N.S. (proleptic Gregorian) 22/3/622 AD / to Armenian from O.S. (Julian) 11/3/552 AD / to Baha'i from N.S. (Gregorian) 21/3/1844 AD / to Indian Civil from O.S. (Julian) 24/3/78 AD - N.S. (proleptic Gregorian) 22/3/78 AD [78 AD = year 0 Saka Samvat]/ to Hindu Traditonal from O.S. (proleptic Julian) 56 BC [56 BC is 1 Vikram Samvat (V.S.)]/to Japanese from 1/1/1873 AD/ to Traditional Zodiac Lunisolar Chinese from 1/1/2011 to 31/12/2030 AD/ to BS Nepali through a freely delivered algorith / to Mayan from proleptic Julian 6/9/3114 BC.
If you select a specific country, the input date refers to the calendar used in the region of the country. Thus if the date belongs to the period where the Gregorian Calendar has not yet been adopted in that country, the New Style (Gregorian) date is also given.
Besides, the dates for the Orthodox/ Catholic Easter for any year after 325 AD (Synod of Nicaea) are given. More information

Full Year Calendars

Analytical ancient full year Attic Calendar for any year from 812 BC until 25000 AD, analytical full year Hebrew Calendar for any year from 3761 BC (year of creation for Jews) until 25000 AD, analytical full year Hijri Calendar for any year from 622 AD (year of Hegira for Muslims), analytical full year Coptic Calendar for any year from 284 AD (Anno Martyri for Copts), analytical full year Ethiopian Calendar for any year from 8 AD (year of the birth of the Lord for Ethiopians), analytical full year Persian/ Afghan Pastu/ Kurdish Calendar for any year from 622 AD, analytical full year Coptic Calendar for any year from 284 AD (reign of Diocletianus), analytical full year Ethiopian Calendar for any year from 8 AD (birth of the Lord according to Annianus), analytical full year Armenian Calendar for any year from 552 AD (year 1 of Armenian era), analytical full year Baha'i Calendar for any year from 1844 AD (year 1 of Baha'i era),analytical full year Indian Civil Calendar for full year for any year from 78 AD (year 0 Saka Samvat for Indians), analytical full year Zodiac Lunisolar Traditional Hindu Calendar for full year for any year from 56 BC (year 1 Vicram Samvat for Indians), analytical Zodiac Lunisolar Chinese Calendar with festivals for full year for any year from 2011 AD to 2030 AD, analytical Japanese Calendar for full year for any year from 1873 AD (year of adoption of the Gregorian Calendar by the Japanese), analytical Mayan Calendar from proleptic Julian 6/9/3114 BC. Each full year calendar is given for the current year and then you can select any other year. You can also move to year calendar through any selected date in the Date Converter.









TODAY in various Calendars


Current date in the Gregorian Calendar / Julian Calendar / Ancient Attic (Athenian) Calendar / Armenian Calendar / Chinese Calendar / Traditional Hindu Calendar / Roman Calendar / Byzantine Calendar / Hebrew Calendar / Hijri (Islamic) Calendar / Coptic Calendar / Ethiopian Calendar / Armenian/ Baha'i / Persian Calendar / Afghan-Pastu Calendar / Kurdish Calendar / Indian Civil Calendar / Japanese Calendar / Mayan Calendar


Gregorian

Old (Julian) Calendar

Spring Equinox

Summer Solstice

Fall Equinox

Winter Solstice

Orthodox Easter

Catholic Easter

Julian Day Number

GRE

JUL

SPE

SUS

FAE

WIS

NMA

NMH

JDN


Ancient Attic

Roman date

Byzantine (Annus Mundi) - Indiction

Hebrew (Anno Mundi)

Hijri

Coptic date (Anno Martyri/ Diocletiani)

Ethiopian date (Year of Mercy/ Amätä Məhrät)

ATT

RD

AM

HEB

HIJ

COP

ETH


Persian

Afghan/Pastu

Kurdish

Armenian

Baha'i

PER

AFG

KUR

ARM

BAH


Indian Civil

Hindu Traditional

Chinese

Japanese

Mayan

HIN

HINT

CHI

JAP

MAY


Current date in the Gregorian Calendar
Current date in the Julian Calendar
Date-Time of the Spring Equinox of the current year
Date-Time of the Summer Solstice of the current year
Date-Time of the Fall Equinox of the current year
Date-Time of the Winter Solstice of the current year
Date-Time of the New Moon of the start of the Attic year
Date-Time of the New Moon of the start of the Hebrew year
Julian Day Number (JDN): Number of days that have passed since the start of the current Julian period with day 0 the 1st of Jan. 4713 BC (in proletic Julian Calendar). This counting has been introduced by Scaliger in 1583. It gives only the ordinal number of any date independently of following Julian Calendar (before 5/10/1582) or Gregorian Calendar (introduced on 5/10/1582 transformed to 15/10/1582)
Current date in the Ancient Attic Calendar: Year numbering from the start of Olympics (776 BC)
Current date in Roman Calendar based on Nones, Ides, Kalends. Year numbering from the year of creation or Rome: Ab Urbe Condita (AUC) = 753 BC
Current date in the Byzantine Annus Mundi: Year numbering from the creation of the world (1st of Sept.5509 BC) according to Byzantines. Used by the Orthodox Church during the Byzantine Era. Byzantine years start on 1st of Sept. Indiction: The order of a year in a repeated 15-year cycle started in 297-298 AD in Roman Egypt and cont. in Byzantines
Current date in the Hebrew Calendar (Anno Mundi). Hebrew Calendar starts on the date of the creation of the world (7th of Oct.3761 BC)
Current date in the Hijri (Islamic) Calendar started in 622 AD
Current date in the Coptic Anno Martyri/Diocletiani Calendar. Coptic Calendar starts on the reign of Diocletian (284 AD). Coptic years begin on 29(30) Aug old-style-calendar at regular (before a leap) years
Current date in the Ethiopian Year of Mercy (Amätä Məhrät) Calendar. Ethiopian Calendar starts on the birth of Christ following Annianus (8 AD). Ethiopian years begin on 29(30) Aug old-style-calendar at regular (before a leap) years
Current date in the Persian/ Afghan-Pastu/ Kurdish Calendars. These Calendars are the most accurate solar calendars in the human history, starting in the vernal equinox. The full cycle consists of 2820 years, the current cycle starting on 15/3/1096 (N.S. 21/3/1096 AD). Year numbering follows the Islamic chronology, Anno Hegira with year 1 the year of Hegira (622 AD).
Current date in the Armenian Calendar started on 11/7/552 AD. Armenian festivals in Apostolic Armenian Church and Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem are also given.
Current date in the Baha'i Calendar started on 21/3/1844 AD (year of enlightenment of Bab).
Current date in the Indian Civil Calendar started in 78 AD (year 0 of Saka Samvat). The Indian Civil year begin on 22(21) Mar new-style-calendar at regular (leap) years, vernal equinox.
Current date in the Chinese Calendar from 1/1/2011 AD to 31/12/2030 AD.
Current date in the Hindu Traditional Calendar from 1/1/2011 AD to 31/12/2030 AD.
Current date in the Japanese Calendar following Gregorian dates after 1/1/1873 AD. The year is defined by the start of the reign of the Emperor.
Current date in the Mayan Calendar started on proleptic Julian 6/9/3114 B.C.





Date Converter



You can convert any date to Attic - Roman - Hebrew - Hijri - Coptic - Ethiopian - Persian - Afghan (Pastu) - Kurdish - Armenian - Indian Civil - Hindu Tradiitonal - Chinese - Japanese!!! to Attic from 16/7/812 BC until 31/12/25000 ... to Hebrew from 7/10/3761 BC until 31/12/25000 AD ... to Hijri from O.S. (Julian) 16/7/622 AD (Anno Hegira) ... to Coptic from O.S. (Julian) 29/8/284 AD - 1st year of Era of Martyrs - 1st year of Diocletianus ... to Ethiopian from O.S. (Julian) 29/8/8 AD - 1st year of Mercy (Amätä Məhrät) ... to Persian/ Afghan/Pastu/ Kurdish from O.S. (Julian) 19/3/622 AD - N.S. 22/3/622 AD (Anno Hegira) ... to Armenian from O.S. (Julian) 11/7/552 AD ... to Baha'i from 21/3/1844 AD ... to Indian Civil from O.S. (Julian) 24/3/78 AD - N.S. (proleptic Gregorian) 22/3/78 AD (0 year Saka Samvat) ... to Chinese from 2011 AD to 2030 AD ... to Hindu Traditional from 2011 AD to 2030 AD ... to Japanese from 1/1/1873 AD (year of adoption of the Gregorian Calendar by the Japanese) ... to Mayan from proleptic Julian 6/9/3114 BC

If you select Auto the input date is in Old Style (Julian) until 4/10/1582 AD and in New style (Gregorian) from 15/10/1582 AD.
If you select a specific country, the input date refers to the calendar used in the region of the country. Thus if the date belongs to the period where the Gregorian Calendar has not yet been adopted in that country, the New Style (Gregorian) date is also computed and presented in New Style Box!

Conversion to BS Nepali

Compute the dates of Ortodox and Catholic Easter


Insert date in the format day/month/year

Choose Old Calendarists/ Country Calendar

New Style <-> Old Style

Day of Week

Julian Day Number


Warnings:

Attic Calendar

Roman Calendar

Hebrew Calendar

Hijri Calendar

Coptic Calendar

Ethiopian Calendar

Persian Calendar

Afghan Calendar

Kurdish Calendar

Baha'i Calendar

Armenian Calendar

Mayan Calendar

Indian Civil Calendar

Hindu Traditional Calendar

Chinese Calendar

Japanese Calendar





Convert to BS-Nepali


An example of a zodiac lunisolar calendar

Gregorian to Bikram Sambat (BS) Nepali Converter

Some lunisolar calendars are dependent also on the position and passing of the Sun from the consecutive zodiac constellations. Among them is the BS Nepali.
You van convert any Julian/Gregorian date to BS Nepali and vice versa.
For conversion to/from BS Nepali the algorithm given by "calendar-nepali.com/nepali-calendar-tools-plugins-addons.html" is used.



Nepali converter
(calendar-nepali.com/nepali-calendar-tools-plugins-addons.html)







Compute the dates of Orthodox/ Catholic Easter


Easter date is a moving feast. It is defined as the first Sunday after the Full Moon after the Vernal Equinox. The epact (number of phase days of the Moon in the beginning of the year) is the basis of the computation. The epact is estimated differently by Eastern and Western Christian Church. Also the Style (Calendar) used is not the same: Julian for Orthodox and Gregorian for Catholics. These result usually to a different Easter date in Easter and Western Christians

Easter Computus

Select a year after 325 AD (Synod of Nicaea) to compute the date of the Orthodox/ Catholic Easter

Easter date of year:

Warnings:

Orthodox Easter

Catholic Easter











Full Year Calendars


Full year calendars for ancient Attic, Hebrew, Hijri, Catholic, Ορθόδοξο (Greek Orthodox), Old-Style Orthodox (Russian), Coptic, Ethiopian, Persian, Afghan/Pastu, Kurdish, Indian Civil, Traditional Hindu, Traditional Chinese, Japanese Calendars







The structure of the Calendars


Ancient Attic (Athenian), Hebrew, Hijri, Persian - Afghan Pastu - Kurdish, Baha'i, Old_style Russian Orthodox, Coptic - Ethiopian, Armenian, Indian Civil, Hindu Traditional, BS Nepali, Chinese, Japanese, Mayan Calendars are discussed







Calendars as Worship Cycles to God (gods) in various Religions


Olympian Greek Religion (Ancient Attic Athenian), Hebrew Religion, Muslim Religion (Hijri), Zoroastrian Muslim complex (Persian/ Afghan Pastu/ Kurdish), Baha'i Religion, Christian Orthodox Religion (New Style/ Old Style), Miaphysitism (Coptic/ Ethiopian), Armenian Tradition (Orthodox Apostolic/ Catholic), Hinduism (Hindu Traditional), Tibetan Buddhism (BS Nepali), Chinese Tradition, Japanese Tradition, Mayan Astronomy are discussed





Attic Calendar


About the history and the structure of the ancient Attic (Athenian) Calendar

About this reconstruction of the Attic Calendar

In this site you can find a reconstruction of the ancient Attic/ Athenian calendar introduced by the astronomer Meton in 432 BC. A milestone in the history of the Calendars is the discovery of the 19 years cycle after which the solar and the lunar date are aligned again. Meton cycle consists of 6940 days distributed in 8 normal years of 354 days, 4 normal years of 355 days and 7 long years of 384 days (through the intercalation of one more 30-month, named Poseideon II, after Poseideon).
More info

Attic months with their festivals

A detailed description of each month (in Greek) and a photo-series with the main ceremonies.
Select a month

About Us


The moderate and the beauty involved in ancient cults call us in the eternity, moving us to resort to and, why not, to apply a calendar, where the festivals are not determined arbitrarily but through the solstices and the equinoxes of the Sun and the phases of the Moon.

Who We Are

Our team includes people interested in the reconstruction of the ancient calendars enriched with the corresponding festivals. We aim at the recovery of the ancient rhythm of the daily life in accordance to the perennial cycles of the eternal gods of Nature: the Sun and the Moon. Time in the ancient people, especially in Greece and Judea, was a cycle resonated with the movements of the two main celestial bodies, the Sun and the Moon. The great discovery of the 19-year cycle by Meton, developed further by Callippus and Hipparchus, is a miraculous achievement based on refined astronomical observations and mathematical calculations. This cycle of years, each year lasting 12 or 13 months, complemented with the festivals in favour of the great gods and protectors of the cities, created a repeated series of events. The life of cities was inseparable from these events and it is impossible to comprehend the daily life and habits of our ancestors without the calendar cycle of these festivals.

What We Do

This site concerns the Sacred Time of the someday used ancient calendars (like Athenians) as well as the until now used religious calendars of various people. You can find here an accurate correspondence between the now used dates of the Gregorian Calendar (New Style) and these of the previous Julian Calendar (Old Style), the reconstructed ancient Attic (Athenian) Calendar (from 812 BC to 25000 AD), the ancient Roman calendar, the valid until now religious Hebrew Calendar (3761 BC until 25000 AD), the Hijri (Islamic) Calendar (from 622 AD), the Coptic Calendar (from 284 AD), the Ethiopian Calendar (from 8 AD), the Armenian Calendar (from 552 AD), the Baha'i Calendar (from 1844 AD), the Persian & the Afghan Pastu & the Kurdish Calendars (from 622 AD), the Armenian Calendar (from 522 AD), the Indian Civil Saka Samvat Calendar (from 78 AD), Traditional Lunar Hindu Calendar (from 2011 to 2030 AD), the Traditional Lunar Chinese Calendar (from 2011 to 2030 AD), the Bikram Sambat (BS) Nepali Calendar, the Japanese Calendar (from 1873 AD) and Mayan Calendar (from proleptic Julian 3114 BC). The date of today is presented in all of them. Additionally you have the ability to convert any date (from proleptic Julian Calendar before 46 BC or Julian Calendar or the contemporary Gregorian Calendar) to any of the above mentioned Calendars. Besides, you can select any year for analytical full ancient Attic, Hebrew, Hijri (Islamic), Coptic, Ethiopian, Armenian, Baha'i, Persian, Afghan Pastu, Kurdish, Indian Civil, Traditional Lunar Hindu Calendar, Traditional Lunar Chinese Calendar, Japanese and Mayan Calendars. Besides the Easter Catholic and Orthodox date is given for any year. After all you can resort to any of the presented calendars according to your religion for information about the religious dates, or possibly to revive a someday used calendar as your own, if you are attracted by their gods or ceremonies.

Why Choose Us

This is the only site, where you can find an integrated reconstruction of the ancient Attic (Athenian) Calendar. We considered as the year 1 of the 1st Meton cycle the actual beginning of Meton-cycles: 432 BC. We extended the calendar 20 cycles to the past in order to have the opportunity to use the Attic calendar for the definition of some certain dates recorded in the ancient texts (as the eclipse foretold by Thales, which has been identified with 28 May, 585 BC in proleptic Julian Calendar). The dates given before the summer solstice of 432 BC consist the proleptic Attic Calendar. We have used an algorithm for the estimation of the first day of each attic year (first new moon after the summer solstice), based on the ‘Molad Tohu’ algorithm for the determination of the first day of the Hebrew years. It is examined against the really occurred new moon and the estimation is indeed successful, failing in at most 1 plus/minus day. We also note that the corrections of Callippus (every 76 years) and Hipparchus (every 304 years) to the Meton cycle have also been taken into account.
Another unique feature of this site is the selection of the country or region before the conversion process, so that the then valid calendar (Old Style Julian or New Style Gregorian) is used, since the adoption of the new calendar occurred in different times in European regions and their overseas states. Any date (either New Style or Old Style) is given also in the other style. Besides Old Calendarists (in Orthodox groups in Greece etc) can find here either the equivalent New Style date of their used date or inversely to convert the officially used date (Gregorian date) into their Old Style date. Additionally Orthodox/ Catholic Easter dates are given for any year from 325 AD (Synod of Nicaea).
Last but not least is the ability to have full year calendas for any year, now for all the above mentioned calendars









INFO SECTION


A list of interesting info-items

A list of queries, that seem trivial but we could not find the answer elsewhere in a compact constistent way









INFO OF THE DAY... Choose Info Item













Contact Us


athenian.calendar@gmail.com



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